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Some line encoding techniques used by DSL.

2B1Q — 2 Binary 1 Quaternary; for ISDN DSL (IDSL); sends two bits of data to every one cycle of an analogue waveform. Uses frequencies of up to 80,000 Hz; same encoding is used on ISDN lines.

QAM — Quadrature Amplitude and Phase Modulation; used in modems for more than 20 years.

CAP — Carrierless Amplitude and Phase modulation. Similar to QAM.

DMT — Discrete MultiTone; patented by AT&T Bell Labs more than 20 years ago.

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